## NOETHER, AMALIE "EMMY"

Mathematician, (1882 - 1935)
She was a mathematician in the first half of the
20th century, receiving her Ph.D. from the University of Erlangen in 1907.
Her work in group theory, ring theory, group representations and number
theory was fundamental to further mathematical principles and would prove useful to physicists and crystallographers.
Noether's Theorem (done in 1915) is named for her.
It is a formalism used in theoretical physics.
She is known for her work in ideal theory and non-associative algebras.
Denied recognition for her work most of her life, in 1932 she received the Alfred Ackermann-Teubner
Memorial Prize for the Advancement of Mathematical Sciences.

Early in her career she was not
permitted to hold a paid position, so she taught for no pay so that she could
use the university facilities for her work. For a short time, she even had to teach under the
name of David Hilbert, whom she worked with at Gottingen University. With the rise of Naziism in
1930's Germany she moved to the United States to take a guest professorship
at Bryn Mawr.
At her death Einstein volunteered
to write her obituary:

*In the judgement of the most competent living mathematicians, Fraulein
Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far
produced since the higher education of women began. In the realm of algebra
in which the most gifted mathematicians have been busy for centuries she
discovered methods which have proved of enormous importance in the development
of present day younger generation of mathematicians.*

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More information may be found at
St. Andrews*

the Association for Women in Mathematics and

the San Diego Super Computer Center

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And look for more information about Noether's Theorem.
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